3. Priorities, junctions and rights of way must be designed such that cyclists' rarely need to use their brakes or get off their bikes.
The efficiency of cycling is greatly reduced if cyclists' journeys are punctuated by many slows and stops. Each time that a cyclist has to stop and restart, the effort required is approximately equivalent to riding an additional 200 meters.
Excessive traffic lights, traffic lights which don't respond to cyclists (poorly setup detection loops) and cycling specific lights which always default to red do not help to make efficient journeys. Cyclists riding straight on should not lose priority to drivers coming from behind who wish to turn across their path.
Cyclists should also never be given a green light to go straight on at the same time as motorised traffic has a green light to make a turn across their path (the "green light of death" with which trucks in particular kill hundreds of cyclists each year). Nor should cyclists who are going straight on at a busy junction be expected to share a lane with drivers who are turning across their path.
Dangerous situations can also arise when cyclists need to turn across the road. i.e. making a right turn in countries where driving is on the left, or a left turn in countries where driving is on the right. In these situations, there needs to be a method of removing conflict between cyclists who have no choice but to change lanes to make a turn and drivers who are in those lanes and possibly driving quickly. The best way of removing this conflict is to adopt Dutch design for junctions which removes the conflict altogether.
Signposts can be hard to read due to placement or size. In all cases, signs need to tell cyclists where they are heading towards (both local and regional destinations) and how far away in km or miles these destinations are. Distances given in "minutes" are not helpful. Not giving any distances at all is not helpful, and signs which have just a route number but no indication of what is along the route are also not helpful.
Cycle-route signage must be of a size that it can be read without having to stop. Signposts have in the past been placed at or even beyond the intersection or exit. Lighting is lacking in many cases, and if so, then signs must not be so high that they can't be illuminated by a bicycle headlight.
To summarise: Cyclists should not be disadvantaged relative to other traffic. Traffic lights need to be well adjusted. Detection systems should detect the cyclists at sufficient distance from the junction. Traffic approaching from behind can never have priority. The practice of "taking priority away" from cyclists must vanish, where possible the turns in the road that make this happen must be undone. Signposts should be readable at speed. Just like on highways exits must be announced well in advance.